There are many biodegradable additives use in producing plastic bags to make plastic bags destroyed easily and quickly in environment.
1. P-Life made by Pacific Enterprise Japan Ltd
P-life is a degradable additive provide the chemical environment that subsequently and inevitably leads to the total degradation of the polyethylene product into carbon dioxide, water and a benign, non-toxic residue at the molecular level, which is then totally assimilated back into nature.
Degradation Steps of P-Life Degradable Plastics
After completion of their lifetime as plastic products, plastics with P-Life additive (P-Life Degradable Plastics) start to degrade once they are disposed in the natural environment.
Under Sun Light, together with abundance of Heat and Oxygen – stage 1: oxidative degradation commences – the oxidative reaction leads chain scission of polyolefin polymers and the production of low molecular mass oxidation products such as carboxylic acids etc.
Through the stage 1: Oxidative degradation, P-Life Degradable Plastics become embrittled and they are ready to be bio-assimilated by the living organism.
The Oxidative Degradation of P-Life Degradable Plastics is confirmed through the various accelerated abiotic testing such as Thermal and UV Exposure Testing based on ASTM Standards (Please refer to Annex1). And the GPC Analysis for Molecular Weight is also shown in Annex1.
In stage 2: Biodegradation, the low molecular mass oxidation products produced in the process of stage 1: oxidative degradation will be bio-assimilated gradually in soil or bio-active composting environment.
During this stage, plastic materials are digested by the living organism; they are then transformed into Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Water (H2O) and Biomass through metabolism of the living organism.
2. D2W made by Symphony Environmental Technologies Plc, UK
D2W is the brand for controlled-life plastic technology which is designed to control and shorten the life of normal plastic products and packaging. D2W is a carefully researched and tested additive formulation which is added to normal plastic at the extrusion or casting stage of manufacture.
Symphony’s D2W formulation is so effective that it needs normally to be included at only 1%, resulting in considerable savings in cost, transport, and storage.
The degradation process is initiated at the time the polyethylene or polypropylene is extruded by the inclusion of a small amount of d2w™ additive, which works to break down the carbon-carbon bonds in the plastic leading to a lowering of the molecular weight and eventually to a loss of strength and other properties. Stabilisers work to ensure that a sufficiently long useful life is provided for each specific application. For example, a refuse sack might require a useful life of say 18 months before beginning to lose its strength whereas a bread bag might only require a few weeks.
3. EPI made by Environmental Products Inc, Canada
EPI is a chemical additive to manufacturers of finished plastic products in the packaging, agricultural and composting industries and (b) degradable landfill cover and wrap systems to customers in the solid waste management industry. The principal chemical additives sold by EPI are proprietary oxo-biodegradable plastic additives. EPI is the pioneer and world’s leading practitioner of oxo-biodegradable technology and has the experience and technical knowledge to design additive systems for polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene to meet widely varying needs for shelf and service life and degradation performance in a range of disposal medium and situations.
4. Reverte made by Wells Plastics Limited, UK
Reverte is an oxo-biodegardable additive against incorrect disposal. Biodegrade plastic in a few short years – not thousands.The special technical characteristics of the reverte additives ensure that the product has a useful, pre-programmed, fit-for purpose lifetime followed by a post disposal breakdown process that consists of embrittlement, micro fragmentation and, finally, complete biodegradation to carbon dioxide, water and biomass.
Reverte additive to the product is always less than 1% and the control time is just changing the formula of additives only.
The main task of Reverte is truncated continuous polyolefin chain molecules, under the influence of oxygen, sunlight, and temperature. Accordingly, from a long chain, closely associated microorganisms that are not biodegradable, and Reverte has broken short chain molecules, the weak link, creating conditions for microbial decomposition polyolefin easily.
5. Biocom made by Paramount Packaging, Ireland
Biocom is an additive which can be added to HDPE ( high density polyethylene ) or MDPE (medium density polyethylene) bags or sacks or material which accelerates the degradation of the material. Depending on the amount added the product can break down in as little as six months in normal landfill conditions. Biocom is different from other similar additives in that the degradation is not photo sensitive and is therefore not triggered during the manufacturing process. This means that the products treated with Biocom will have a normal shelf life and the degradation will not commence until the bags are removed from their cartons. Degradable plastics should not be mistaken with biodegradable plastic substitutes. Biocom is not a biodegradable product.
The last degradation process into organic powder, mix into soil and totally pollutes the environment. Not only that, biodegradable additive origin from starch, not affect the health of consumers.